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What you can see in Moscow?

Moscow is not only the largest city in Europe, and the Russian Capital, but the largest city in the country by a huge margin - with a population of 12 million, more than double that of St. Petersburg (5.5m), the second city. This is one place in the Russian Federation where an inquisitive visitor can see the legacy - and even feel the atmosphere of thousand years of Russian history. When visitors see it themselves and they invariably comment on the big difference between what they have read in the papers and seen on TV, and the reality of life in Russia. Before they come, most visitors ask me, "Is Moscow safe?" After their visit here, they have usually answered the question themselves with: "Yes, here we were safer than in any other capital in the World".

A walk around the MOSCOW KREMLIN and visit inside.

 We usualy start this excursion at 10 a.m. with visit the RED SQUARE.

 

Hundreds of years ago under the east wall of the Kremlin there was a square which was alive with the bustle of street traders. In the 16th century it was called Troitskaya(Trinity) Square after Holy Trinity Church which stood where St.Basil's Cathedral is now to be seen. In the middle ages there were often raging fires here, and so it had an alternative name: Fire Square. From the mid -17th century it became known as Krasnaya (Red) Square, and in old Russian this simply meant "beautiful". Red Square has always been the main square in Moscow. After the revolution Red Square maintained its significance, becoming the main square in the life of the new state. Lenin's Mausoleum was built in the shadow of the Kremlin walls, and this made the square the ideological focus of Red Moscow. Today Red Square is once again acquiring its historical appearance, and through the efforts of the Moscow authorities the national places of worship have been restored.

 St.Basil's Cathedral.I do not think there is in Rus any other church decorated as spectacularly as St.Basil's Cathedral. The cathedral actually comprises nine individual churches each crowned by a unique tower. It's unique among Moscow churches.

Not far from St.Basil's Cathedral there is a circular white-stone platform. It is known as the Lobnoe Mesto (Place of Execution)

On the north side of the square there is a Historical museum. The building used to house ministries, a courthouse, and a prison. By 1883 architect Sherwood designed the museum building. He stylized its numerous decorative elements so that they would resemble examples of early Russian architecture and fit in with the entire Kremlin ensemble.  

GUM department store.The eastern side of Red Square used to be occupied by Torgovye Ryadi (or Trading Stalls). They were made for permanent shops. In 1893, the engineer G.Shukhov and the architect A.Pomerantsev built the Upper Trading Rows now known as the GUM department store. Four buildings, 240 meters long each, were built parallel to one another along the eastern side of the square.

Lenin's Mausoleum.From the opposite side under the Kremlin walls you can see the granite small building. That's the Lenin's Mausoleum. The first wooden Masoleum built in 1924. In 1929, the reconstruction of the Mausoleum began. Its brick framework was faced with granite, marble, labradorite and quartzite. Behind the Mausoleum are the graves of workers and soldiers who fell in the Bolshevik Revolution of October 1917. Immured in the Kremlin wall are urns holding ashes of heroes of the Soviet Union, and on both sides of the Mausoleum there are tombstones on the graves of outstanding statesman. Moscow differs from all other capitals of the world by this memorial cemetery.

 In front of the GUM store you can see beutifull pink church. This is the Kazan Cathedral. It was erected on Tsar Michail Romanov's comission in 1636. It was named after an icon of the Virgin from Kazan. The miraculous icon accompanied the regiments of Prince Pozharsky who liberated Moscow from the Polish invaders. The cathedral was erected to commemorate the event . 1812

 

The most valuable treasures definitely are inside of the Kremlin walls. The redbrick Kremlin we have today is Moscow's fourth one. The first one was built by Prince of Vladimir and Suzdal Yuri Dolgoruky. In 1339 new oak walls were erected. And in 1366 Dmitry Donskoy, Grand Prince of Moscow, decided to fortify Moscow with a stone fortress wall. There was nothing like that in northeastern Rus before.By 1367 the white fortress wall, having five towers with gateways, encircled the town's center. From that time Moscow became known as "white stone city".This name was preserved even after the building of a new Kremlin out of red bricks in the 15th century.

 

Kremlin TowersIt was the residence of the Russian Tsars, and the Russian emperors were crowned here. After the revolution the Bolshevik government moved into the Kremlin, and it became impossible to visit its territory without a special pass. Only in 1955, shortly after Stalin's death, was the Kremlin opened as a state museum. There are 20 towers Kremlin wall has. The oldest Kremlin tower, the Taininskaya(Secret), was built in 1485. Its romantic name is connected with a secret well and an undeground passage to the Moscow River, which were dug against possibility of siege. The most famous and important towers are: the Spasskaya(Saviour)Tower the gateway for our government.

The Troitskaya(Trinity) gateway for regular visiters. We enter the Kremlin through the gates of the Trinity Tower.On entering you will be required to leave luggage in special lockers, and asked by felt-booted Kalashnikov-armed soldiers to walk through metal detectors. Let's start with Sobornaya (Cathedral)Square, which is the Kremlin's main square.